Big baby no gestational diabetes

Has anyone had a baby this big without gestational diabetes

Suddenly large baby, no gestational diabetes or polyhy

  1. Not to mention, mom will automatically run the risk of developing gestational diabetes which also can cause a baby to be born big. There are some moms out there who delivered babies whose birth weight was in the double digits, even after the baby had taken their first potty break and had yet to be fed
  2. Be wary of ultrasounds. My first baby was 9lbs 11 oz born at 39 wks. I ended up having gestational diabetes with the second pregnancy and had much more monitoring. At 33 wks, my baby was measuring 4 wks ahead and I was told I would have a 10lb+ baby. She was 8lb 15 oz, again at exactly 39 wks
  3. The study did not rule out that gestational diabetes may cause the birth of a large baby because none of the people tested had gestational diabetes
  4. 29/07/2009 at 1:59 pm. Hello just wanted to say a big baby does not always mean gestational diabetes. My first was 11lbs1 and I did not have gestational diabetes. This baby is on the 100th centile for growth according to last scan (1 week ago) so looks like will be another whopper and again no gestational diabetes
Are you at risk of being diagnosed with gestational

Has anybody had a 'big baby' without gestational diabetes

NO! Gestational diabetes is a term to describe decreased glucose tolerance during pregnancy. have had previous complicated deliveries because of a big baby. have previously had babies over 9lbs. have been labelled as obese. or have close relatives with diabetes Myth #7: All Women with Gestational Diabetes Will Have Big Babies. Not so fast One of the big fears associated with gestational diabetes is the risk of having a large baby (also called macrosomia). Statistically it's true. As a whole, we see more macrosomic babies among women with gestational diabetes. However you don't have to be a. Gestational diabetes is a type of diabetes that affects only pregnant women. It shows up in women who've never had diabetes before. And for many (but not all) such women, it goes away on its own. Gestational diabetes can also start when the mother's body is not able to make and use all the insulin it needs for pregnancy. Without enough insulin, glucose can't leave the blood and be changed into energy. When glucose builds up in the blood, it's called hyperglycemia Gestational Diabetes Tests and Diagnosis. Gestational diabetes usually happens in the second half of pregnancy. Your doctor will check for it between weeks 24 and 28, or sooner if you're at high risk

The fact is that gestational diabetes comes on late in pregnancy, so birth defects are not caused by it. By the time Gestational diabetes pops in the baby is already pretty well formed. The high glucose levels in the baby make it's pancreas have to work harder to produce insulin Breastfeeding after gestational diabetes can lower both mother's and baby's risk of being overweight or developing type 2 diabetes. By Chris Iliades, MD July 29, 2009 Dining Out With Gestational.

With insulin being a growth hormone, it can cause the baby to grow big for gestational age. If gestational diabetes is diagnosed and managed (blood sugar levels monitored, dietary changes made and medication or insulin taken if needed as necessary), then the chances of having a big baby are greatly reduced. Therefore, many do not have big babies Gestational diabetes aside you coukd just have a big baby. And it is definatly not an exact science as this baby presents biggie on ultrasound than my daughter and my uterus is no measuring right on track. Where as with my daughter I measured 4-6 weeks ahead the whole time Gestational Diabetes. Gestational diabetes is the type of diabetes that occurs during pregnancy. Like other forms od diabetes, gestational diabetes affects the way the body uses the glucose [sugar] in the blood and as a result the blood sugars rise too high. The glucose in the blood is the body's main source of energy

My youngest sister's second baby was 10lb, she gave birth at home in a birthing pool, no suspicions of big baby, no gestational diabetes. My other sister was told she had GD, her babies were 9lb something I think, both vaginal births. Mine were 8lb12oz and 9lb5oz but vaginal, no GD. Don't let them scare you [new 2015] N/A for gestational diabetes 1.4.3 Consider elective birth before 37+0 weeks for women with type 1 or type 2 diabetes if there are metabolic or any other maternal or fetal complications. [new 2015] N/A for gestational diabetes 1.4.4 Advise women with gestational diabetes to give birth no later th Continue reading >> At my last scan (around 38 weeks) they said bub was 3kg. I was induced 2 days before my due date and he ended up being only 2.8kg (6 pounds) - so definitely not a big baby! My doctors said the risk of a big baby is if the diabetes is not managed properly, if your readings are good and the docs are keeping an eye on you, you'll probably be fine In healthy pregnancies without pre-term or post-term health complications, large for gestational age, or fetal macrosomia have been observed to affect around 12% of newborns. By comparison, women with gestational diabetes are at an increased risk of giving birth to LGA babies, where ~15-45% of neonates may be affected

LGA babies have birthweights greater than the 90th percentile for their gestational age, meaning that they weigh more than 90 percent of all babies of the same gestational age. The average baby weighs about 7 pounds at birth. About 9 percent of all babies weigh more than 4,000 grams (8 pounds, 13 ounces). Rarely do babies weigh over 10 pounds Diet Prevents Big Babies In Gestational Diabetes Patients. A healthy diet alone can control gestational diabetes and doesn't put the mother at greater risk of having a big baby, new research from the Royal Women's Hospital has found Gestational Diabetes Results In Big Baby? Has anyone had gestational diabetes? I was diagnosed with it and everyone says I'm gonna have a big baby. Is this always true? I've only gained in my belly. I'm all belly pretty much. I think my size is normal for 35 weeks. I'm close to what I was with my first and I was all belly with him. View 5. Some people just have really big babies with no other factors (no gestational diabetes, not overweight, normal weight gain). 06/02/2020 11:43 Subject: Re:Large baby without GD My daughter's belly also measured 2 weeks larger and she was in fact large. She was 9.4 pounds. Had taken the diabetes glucose test twice with her and never a diabetic. This baby's belly is measuring 3 weeks larger and also no gestational diabetes. Just big healthy babies

How Will This Impact My Baby ADA - Home AD

My vbac baby boy was born 9lbs and 23 inches long with a nuchal body and asynclitic. No gestational diabetes and I fought them off so I could nurse him before they did blood glucose, because he was so big. He was perfect and no blood sugar issues! He was 41 weeks. 65 hours of labor I had two very large babies, both vaginally, no gestational diabetes. #1 - 11 lb. 11 oz, 21 inches (boy) 24 hour labor #2 - 11 lb. 7 oz, 21 inches (girl) 10 hour labor (piece of cake!) No problems with either of them or me. Big babies run in my family so I knew I was in for it, haha

I did end up with a big baby (9.5lbs) even with no gestational diabetes, though she was short and stout and with a huge head. My new OB plans to keep an eye on the size of this current baby and potentially induce this time around Home remedies can be a part of primary strategies to prevent gestational diabetes in second pregnancy. In general, these include: Lose your excessive weight if you are overweight! As noted before, being overweight (over 30 of BMI 'body mass index') is one of the risk factors for gestational diabetes. In other words, your chance of. I had no idea what Gestational Diabetes was. I didn't think I had the option not to take the test, and I had no idea what 'failing' the test would mean. Unfortunately, it was only after I had 'failed' the test and was diagnosed with Gestational Diabetes that I researched more about the unreliability of the formal tests and the impact. According to the American Diabetes Association, about 15% of women go on to need insulin at some point in a pregnancy; in many studies the number is much higher. However, a lot depends on the protocols used by the provider----for example, the diagnostic cutoff used to start insulin (at 105, at 95, at 90, or even lower in a few cases)----and how.

Why is my baby so large? Along the same lines as the smaller baby, there are many factors that will attribute to the larger than normal baby. The height of mom and dad, the weight of mom, the eating habits of mom and the presence of gestational diabetes can all attribute to a larger than normal size baby Gestational diabetes tends to go away after you have had your baby. Much depends on how well you get on with regulating your blood sugar levels through diet and exercise . If you had type 2 diabetes before developing gestational diabetes, you will need to continue with whatever treatment your doctor advises after you've had your baby There was no gestational diabetes but the mother's other child was large for gestational age (LGA). The pertinent physical exam showed a large male with birth weight of 4430 grams (98%), head circumference of 37 cm (98%) and length of 53 cm (90%) and was symmetric. HEENT was normal. His clavicles were intact. There was no heart murmur Went for my MW app yesterday and she was suprised to discover I was peeing sugar! Turns out I should have gone for a GTT @ 28 weeks but she forgot to send me - my mum has type 2 diabetes and is insulin dependent! Thankfully I know this has been giong on for a max of 3 wek

Big babygestational diabetes?? Mumsne

  1. He was born at 40 weeks 6 days anyways, but was larger (and taller). I had no issues with delivery. DH was a large baby and is 6'4 - this accounted for a larger baby, no GD. I'm having another boy, he's measuring in the 70th percentile for weight at 28 weeks so probably another larger baby for me this time as well
  2. However, if the OB-GYN is concerned, or if you have a condition like gestational diabetes that carries the risks of very large for age babies, we will send you for a scan. He says that the scan.
  3. My baby was off the freakin chart at 20 weeks. Of course no one directly told me, just scheduled a follow up ultrasound. My nurse told me everyone was talking about Godzilla baby. She weighed in at 8 pounds 6 ounces. No gestational diabetes much to their shock (I was overweight going into my pregnancy)
  4. No gestational diabetes: Insulin moves glucose from the blood into your cells. Gestational diabetes: This can make the baby grow too big, which can cause problems during labour and increase the risk of early delivery or the need for a caesarean section. After the birth, the baby may have a greater risk of low blood glucose.
  5. I am slim and honestly look like I'm ready to pop at 32 weeks! (Not scientific but I'm LARGE and it's all baby bump) latest ultrasound guesstimates baby is 5lb 6oz. no gestational diabetes. I've been chatting with my midwives and it's been suggested that I'd have the best chance for a vaginal birth if I induce a couple weeks early

Fetal macrosomia - Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clini

  1. al circumference) measurement has shot forward and is on the 97th centile. The sonographer told me that I may be developing gestational diabetes and also that I may be showing signs of preeclampsia (I have put on a stone in the last 2 weeks and.
  2. Most women with gestational diabetes will have a healthy pregnancy and a healthy baby. Will my baby be born with diabetes? No. Gestational diabetes will not lead to your baby being born with diabetes. Babies born to mothers who have had gestational diabetes however, may be at increased risk of childhood obesity and type 2 diabetes later in life
  3. Each year, about 135,000 American moms-to-be are diagnosed with gestational diabetes -- and many of them had no symptoms. If you have gestational diabetes, it can often be controlled through diet and exercise and daily self-testing of blood sugar. Some women take insulin as part of their treatment plan
  4. Gestational diabetes is a type of diabetes that happens during pregnancy. The symptoms of gestational diabetes usually go away after delivery. But sometimes they do not, or you may develop type 2 diabetes later
  5. Gestational Diabetes Symptoms . Gestational diabetes usually has no obvious symptoms. If symptoms do occur, they can include: Unusual thirst Excessive urination Tiredness Thrush (yeast infections) Gestational Diabetes Risk Factors . Below is a list of risk factors for gestational diabetes: Family history of type 2 diabetes. Having a first.
  6. A large for gestational age (LGA) baby is a baby who has an estimated weight that exceeds the usual weight expected for their gestation (number of weeks of pregnancy). In women who have diabetes that is not picked up or well-controlled the condition is called macrosomia. Approximately 5 - 8 out of 100 babies are identified as being large for.

Measuring 3 weeks ahead?! - October 2021 Babies Forums

My step-father was a 12 baby born at home! Of course this was back in 1929 and he was the first of 9 children. I would have thought after that huge baby the mother would have said no to anymore. Ironically my step-father was not a big guy; only about 5'6 with very bowed legs For me personally, I have no signs of gestational diabetes, my blood pressure is consistently low, and my baby's growth is right on track. Leaving only concerns number 1 and 5, which are really just about my own convenience. After talking to my midwife and reading up on the risks, I'm not concerned about my high pregnancy weight gain

Some experts consider a baby to be big when it weighs more than 8 pounds 13 ounces (4,000 g) at birth, and others say a baby is big if it weighs more than 9 pounds 15 ounces (4,500 g). A baby is also called large for gestational age if its weight is greater than the 90th percentile at birth. Contents. 1 Signs and symptoms; 2 Risk factor First baby? You hear the get induced or planned c-section for a big baby quite frequently, but it's very often first babies, or babies of mums with GD, or singleton after multiples, or long gap between babies, pretty much anything other than someone like you who has no notable interpregnancy gap, no gestational diabetes, nothing that would pus

Things That Happen During Pregnancy That Will Cause A Big Bab

  1. 98th percentile! Full term at 32 weeks :p: Sooo..... Just had my ultrasound to check if the placenta had moved up (it did), and we found out that the baby was measuring full term, 98th percentile, and I'm just 32 weeks! I'm sure of my dates, it's just that I'm really tall, so is my husband, and everyone in our families, so no big surprise here
  2. Hello I had a scan a couple of weeks ago at 32 weeks and my baby was on the 97th percentile. They estimated the weight to be 5lb 4oz!!! He had a larger head than tummy - apparently a bigger tummy can indicate gestational diabetes. My gtt came back ok though so he's just a big bubba. I am having a planned c section though - thank heavens!! Xxx
  3. Glucose in the urine may mean that a woman has gestational diabetes. Normally there is very little or no glucose in urine. When the blood sugar level is very high, as in uncontrolled diabetes, the sugar spills over into the urine. Glucose can also be found in urine when the kidneys are damaged or diseased
  4. Some experts consider a baby to be big when it weighs more than 8 pounds 13 ounces (4,000 g) at birth, and others say a baby is big if it weighs more than 9 pounds 15 ounces (4,500 g). [4] A baby is also called large for gestational age if its weight is greater than the 90th percentile at birth. [5] Signs and symptom
  5. Maternal diabetes You can end up with high fluid levels if you have diabetes and you're having trouble managing it properly. That's because you're probably carrying a large baby as a result of your diabetes. Polyhydramnios is diagnosed in about 10 percent of pregnant diabetics, usually in the third trimester
  6. Gestational diabetes is a roller coaster ride from start to finish. There is a lot of information to navigate and often at a session with your diabetes educator you don't know what questions to ask. So we pulled together an extensive list of questions about insulin for gestational diabetes

Gestational diabetes has several risk factors, and some women get it for unexplained reasons. Yes the biggest risk is overweight and lack of exercise. In my case I lost 40 pounds to reach a normal weight before pregnancy. I was diagnosed with gestational diabetes at 12 weeks (usually not an issue until 3rd trimester) A woman asks the perinatal nurse about gestational diabetes because she has been reading about it. The nurse should inform the patient that screening for this condition is usually done at what time during the pregnancy? A. Around 24 to 28 weeks' gestation B. End of first trimester C. Mid-pregnancy D. Normally offered around week 3

Fetal abdomen (belly) size - measuring really big

Vol 13 No 7 (2006): Folia Cardiologica. 10 Pounds 3 Ounces: That's One Big Baby!!! No gestational diabetes Hcg levels vary greatly and are no... Dr. Raj Syal answered: Yes: The crl is very accurate in estimating the gestational age. U.S. doctors online now Ask doctors fre Bigger baby but no gestational diabetes. c. ClarissaU. Posted 7/18/13. Hello, I wouldn't worry about baby being too big - my SOs mother gave birth to a 10 lb baby with no medicines. She.

Mom's weight, not blood sugar levels, may lead to birth of

August - 12 lbs 4 oz. 07/13/2012 By mommareese. Baby August, my first baby born at home on 1-20-12 weighing 12.4 lbs 25 inches long. No gestational diabetes. Went 2 weeks overdue.. ~Emily I gave birth to a 10lb 4oz baby at 41.5 weeks. We were all shocked and thrilled and had no idea he would be so big (I had no gestational diabetes or any complications during pregnancy, gained 40lbs) Everyone assumes, because of his size, that he arrived via C-section, but he didn't. (And no, I did not tear at all! Thank you SO MUCH- you are so kind for replying so quickly. My OB warned me about the large torso/shoulders issue, even if my sugars are perfect - when I told him that my husband was 10 lbs. 12 oz. at birth (with no gestational diabetes) he laughed and told me to count on a c-section I had a 42 week pregnancy that resulted in a 10½ lb baby. No weight gain on my part (I actually lost weight due to hyperemesis) and no gestational diabetes. Forced induction with Cervadil and legal maximum of pitocin. 37 hours of labor, two hours of pushing, shoulder dystocia (15 inch chest. They didn't measure his shoulders

While I showed no symptoms of gestational diabetes he stressed how important it was to be certain and if he couldn't clear it on my file I'd be treated as if I had gestational diabetes when I got to the Hospital - certainly not what I wanted. I'm 24 weeks pregnant and this second time around will skip the drink all together Blood pressure is great, baby's heartbeat is great, lots of fetal movement, no gestational diabetes, and no underlying health conditions for me or the baby. It just seems kind of unnecessary. I was the same size/weight with my last pregnancy and my doctor never suggested extra ultrasounds No gestational sac at 6 weeks TVS. Hi, I was very happy when I tested positive for pregnancy on 4th Feb. I was put on folic acid and progesterone supplements.Later after a week, I had minor bleeding after which I was given a progesterone injection followed by a TVS scan the following day.I am very much sure that I am 6 week pregnant as my last.

big baby- gestational diabetes?? - Netmum

I'm still reeling after giving birth to a 10 lb baby with no gestational diabetes. It was my fourth child, the other three were between 7 lbs 1 oz and 8 lbs 8 oz, and all were 1 week late. I exercised with all of them, started out each time with a BMI of 19-very lean-and gained the recommended amount of weight METHODS: This retrospective cohort study examined 134 children aged 4 to 9 years with polyhydramnios and normal detailed ultrasound examination during pregnancy compared with 268 controls with normal AFI and normal detailed ultrasound examination matched for maternal age, year of delivery, gestational week at delivery, and presence or absence of diabetes

The Big Gestational Diabetes Post — Ashley Carver

Blood tests are normal, no high blood pressure, no gestational diabetes, no swelling even. I have only gained 2 pounds with this pregnancy but have lost them so I really am puzzled as to how I am measuring so big BMI of greater than 25 and gestational diabetes were also associated with having a large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infant. Initial BMI and gestational weight gain are also both modifiable risk factors and provide potential interventions to decrease a patient's risk of having a macrosomic infant My blood pressure was great and no gestational diabetes. However, I could tell that she was going to be a big baby. My first baby was small only 6.1 lbs, and he was a vaginal delivery - with only minor hiccups. Our son was a city baby delivered at a tertiary care centre 5 minutes down the road, by our family doctor at the time a gestational sac (6x6mm) was found, no heartbeat, non-viable. 6 weeks after the embryo transfer: a gestational sac (26x14mm) was found, non-viable, and no fetal pole was detected. 7 weeks after the embryo transfer, some signs of miscarriage were found, the gestational sac was told to be similiar to 6 weeks 2 days while mine is 9 weeks. TheI.

9 Gestational Diabetes Myths - Lily Nichols RD

My biggest fear from the beginning (when they were the size of beans) was that I would have a large baby. I had no gestational diabetes. When babies are that big, they will usually not be able to come out the natural way. My son was too big to drop down and I had a c-section. With my 2nd I opted for the c-section There was an increased risk for small for gestational age, 3.7% (OR 2.34, 95% CI 1.15-4.76) among women in obesity class III losing weight, but there was no significantly increased risk of small for gestational age in the same group with low weight gain. CONCLUSION: Obese women (class II and III) who lose weight during pregnancy seem to have a. 634. peanut oatmeal cookies, a big batch. 635. good news from clinic- no gestational diabetes. 636. strong baby kicks. 637. new washer and dryer. 638. clean clothes. 639. laid back late lunch with Grandma and Grandpa. 640. cousins for my children. 641. sisters knowing the joy of motherhood. 642. family nearby. 643. a few degrees warmer after.

No pregnancy complications to speak of, and for that we feel blessed. I passed my glucose tolerance test with flying colors, so no gestational diabetes. And going to the bathroom two or three times a night isn't considered a complication, just an annoyance! No stretch marks (yet), no outie belly button (yet), no heartburn (yet) Thankfully the entire pregnancy was drama-free. No Braxton-Hicks, no gestational diabetes, no complications at all, just one easy, breezy pregnancy. Exceptthe eighth month brought anxiety. Not about the delivery or whether I'd be a good mother I will also post my update to this thread (I've now had the baby) - around 36 weeks we found out that the baby wasn't very big, but that I was carrying a LOT of amniotic fluid. No cause was ever determined (no gestational diabetes, etc.) - and I did end up having her at 40 weeks & 2 days going into labor naturally the same day I was set to be.

Gestational Diabetes Symptoms: What Are the Signs

No, gestational is the only form of diabetes they can have. The baby's pancreas then makes extra insulin to cope with this and the baby grows too large [macrosomia]. Shoulder dystocia can occur if the baby is very large and the shoulders are too big to move through the birth canal. In most cases doctors can free the baby but injuries. And 9lbs 5 oz is big!!! My last daughter was that one week early. And I had no gestational diabetes. Hubs was a healthy 11 pounder and I was the smallest 10 pounder that my mom gave birth to. LOL No diabetes just big baby genes. I'm expecting another any day. Measuring large they sayimagine I just laugh. Have a blessed weekend Yes, I had a misdiagnosed miscarriage. With my last pregnancy, I was told at my 5-1/2- and 6-week ultrasounds that I most likely had a blighted ovum. After my 7- and 8-week ultrasounds, my doctor strongly recommended a D&C due to an empty gestational sac, which meant there was no hope for a viable pregnancy The pregnancy was without complications (no gestational diabetes, and no hypertension or preeclampsia). Muchas veces, no hay síntomas notorios en las mujeres que tienen diabetes gestacional . Many times, there are no noticeable symptoms for women who have gestational diabetes

Baby had a 10 APGAR at 1 min. No gestational diabetes, baby had no blood sugar issues. This is NORMAL! ⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀ Obviously, this cutie was on the bigger side of normal, but for the majority of women, our bodies make babies that we are capable of birthing! Baby being truly too big to fit through mama's pelvis (Cephalopelvic. Several main themes were identified regarding health: balance, knowledge/education and time management. Benefits of the NELIP were improvement in health, stamina, stress, and a healthy baby, no gestational diabetes and a successful home birth, with social support as an important contributing factor for success You treat her for gestational diabetes.. no further testing needed cause she's got it. Your 22 yo pt is 20 weeks pregnant. She has no 1st degree relatives with DM. Macrosomia (BIG ASS BABY) 2. Delayed organ maturity (may be problem if early delivery) 3. Polyhydramnios (too much amniotic fluid) 4. Risk of Shoulder Dystocia

enJOY it by Elise Blaha Cripe: what I am eating withIn The Delivery Room With Normal Labor - Net Health BookGestational diabetes

they class high bmi as high risk and i know a lot of larger ladies end up consultant led so i thought id add a thread for that. my bmi was 40 during.. The frustrations at this point became that the midwife kept telling us there was a risk the baby's shoulder could come out first, since she was obviously going to be a big baby (no gestational diabetes though). She kept talking about how if that happened they would do what they had to do and did I understand Large for gestational age (LGA) is an indication of high prenatal growth rate, often defined as a weight (or length, or head circumference) that lies above the 90th percentile for that gestational age. [1] Macrosomia, also known as big baby syndrome, is sometimes used synonymously with LGA, or is otherwise defined as a fetus or infant that weighs above 4000 grams (8 lb 13 oz) or 4500 grams (9.

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Symptoms: Extreme thirst, hunger, or fatigue (but usually no symptoms). Also, a blood sugar value of 140 mg/DL or greater on a diabetes test.; Consequences: Gestational diabetes can lead to preterm labor or a high birth-weight baby, which can complicate delivery. Some babies have trouble breathing when they are born or develop jaundice. And so most women, even if they have relatively severe gestational diabetes where they're needing medication therapy, whether it's insulin or Metformin or other things, even if they have severe gestational diabetes, a lot of them the day or two postpartum, their blood glucose returns to normal values Here's an experiment. You'll need a grape, a kiwi fruit (peel optional), a large orange and a pineapple. I'll wait while you go fetch. * * * * Take your time. No hurry. * * * * Got them? OK! Right. Pop the grape in your mouth. That was easy, wasn'.. I myself had a large baby, my daughter was 9.5lb (no gestational diabetes). She grew to be a very petit little girl & very thin (though well fed) now as an adult of almost 21 she is lucky to push 8 stone on the scales & is quite stunning Baby Seewald has arrived...It's a boy! Jessa and Ben Seewald gave a statement to PEOPLE Magazine: We are so happy to announce the arrival of our sweet second son. The new addition was born at 4:26am this morning, weighing 8 lbs 11 oz and measuring 21 3/4 inches long. Jessa and baby are both doing well (1 week ago) so looks like will be another whopper and again no gestational diabetes. Insulin resistance is shown to alter reproduction immunity and ain function. Diabetes Prevention and Control Program (DPCP) Projects and Initiatives